19 November 2009

Early Anglo-Saxon battles

456 Hengist defeats Vortigern at the battle at Creacgan Ford (Crayford, Kent)  
465 Hengist and Aesc (later King of Kent) beat the Britons at Wippedes Fleot (ebbsfleet?)  
473 (site unknown) Hengist & Aesc again defeat the Britons  
477 Saxon Aelle (King of Sussex) & sons Cymen, Wlencing & Cissa beat the Britons at Cymenes Ora (Selsey Bill?- now under the sea)  
485 Aelle beat the Britons at Mearcraedes Burna  
491 Aelle and son Cissa led the Saxons in a fierce attack on the Britons, who were entrenched in an old [Roman?] fort here- Pevensey  
495 Cerdic (King of Wessex) and Cynric (King of W.Saxons) beat the Britons at Cerdices Ora  
508 Cerdic & Cynric beat Natanleod at Natan Leag (Netley Marsh?)  
517 British victory (largely cavalry) at Mount Badon under ‘Ambrosius Aurelionus’ checks incursion by Saxon & Angles for about 44 years.  
519 Cerdic & Cynric beat the Britons at Ceridices Ford (site?)  
527 “ “ “ at Cerdicies Leag (site?)  
552 Cynric) beat the Britons here, Searoburh (Ols Sarum?)  
556 Cynric & Ceawlin beat the Britons at Beranburh (Badbury?)  
568 Ceawlin (King of Wessex) and Cutha (W.Saxon king) beat Aethelbert (King of kent) at Wibbandun (site?)  
571 Cuthwulf (W.Saxon king) beat the Britons at Biedcanford (Luton area?) “ Cutha (brother of Ceawlin) beat the Britons in this important battle at Biedcanford.  
577 DYRHAM Cutha, Ceawlin both beat 3 British kings (Conmail, Condidan & Forinmail) then occupied Bath, Gloucester and Cirencester. This major victory split Cornish Britons from the Welsh and SW Britons above the Severn.  
577 West Saxons defeat British at the Battle of Doerham.  
583 Defeat of West Saxons at the Battle of Faddiley stops further incursion into Wales.  
584 Although Ceawlin had taken burhs and booty, he returned home irate – had his army been beaten at Fethanleag (nr Stoke?)by the Britons?  
592 Ceawlin was beaten by ?? here at Adam’s Grove (Alton Priors, Wilts?)  
593 Cwichelm (King W.Sussex), Crida and Ceawlin were beaten in battle at Wodensbeorg (and killed?) by Ceol, who succeeded Ceawlin.  
598 N.Britons under Owain from nr Edinburgh, were wiped out at Cattraith (Catterick?) - recorded in “Goddodin” of Aneirin- by men of Deira/Bernicia led by Aethelferth, who ravaged “North Briton” (now Scotland) killing & slaying, taking land.- Northumbrian power grew, and English troops threatened Scots.   
603 Athelfrith of Deira & Bernicia utterly routs Aidan, king of Dal Riata and Ulster, at the Battle of Degsaston. English army fiercely cut through Celts, killing most. Athelfrith (king of Nbria) conquered all S.E.Scotland below the Forth.  
607 Aethelfrith defeated the Welsh in a great battle near Chester “ (site?) Ceolwulf (King W.Saxons) beat the S.Saxons.  
616 Athelfrith wins major battle against the Britons of Powys and their king, Selyf at the Battle of Chester. Battle was preceded by the slaying of a monk who had been praying for British victory. This split the Strathclyde Britons from their Welsh allies.  
616 Edwin (one son of Aelle) of Deira, was driven out by Aethelfryth of Bernicia and he finally sought refuge with Radwald king of East Anglia, who refused to cave in to Aeth’s demands to hand him over. Raedwald with Edwin of Deira march here and defeat/kill Athelfrith at the Battle of River Idle (Gainsborough?), Edwin was restored to Deira & Bernicia as well (as Raedwald’s vassal?)  
628 Penda (King of Mercia) beat Cynegils (King of Wessex) and son Cwichelm at Cirencester (Gloucs).  
633 Penda of Mercia & Cadwallon of Gwynedd (unnerved by Nbrian expansion) defeat and kill Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase (or Heathfield) at Doncaster.  
634 York. Cadwallon (King of Gwynedd) beat & killed Osric (King of Deira) “ Battle of Heavenfield (Hexham?). Oswald of Bernicia & Deira defeats and kills Cadwallon. They had been ravaging the region and had killed Osric of Deira (above) and Earfrith (Bernicia), Oswald’s brother. Oswald annexed their two kingships of Deira/Bernicia and ensured that this new, expanded kingdom of Nbria would return to Christianity. “ Calathros (Stirlingshire?) – Oswald (King of Nbria) beat Domnall Brec Aedan.  
642 Penda of Mercia defeats Oswald of Bernicia & Deira at the Battle of Maserfield (Shropshire?). He then cut off his hands/head and put them on stakes (as offerings to war gods?) or to terrorise any opposition?
652 Cenwalh of Wessex beat the Britons at Bradenforda (Bradford-on-Avon)  
655 Oswy of Deira had constant wars with Penda of Mercia and the Britons, and here defeated and killed Penda with Æthelhere and 30 other princes and kings in a vicious rout 9where many Mercians/Britons drowned) at the Battle of Winwaed.
658 Cenwalh of Wessex beat the Britons at Penselwood (or Peonnan)- Pinhoe, Devon.
661 “ “ “ “ “ at Postentesburh (posbury, Devon).  
665 Badon (Badbury?) Britons v Anglo-Saxons (unknown outcome)  
674 (site?) Nbria- Ecgfrith of Nbria beat Wulfhere of mercia.  
675 Biedbanheafod Wulfhere of Mercia v Aescwine of Wessex (outcome unknown)  
676 Aethelred of Mercia beat the Britons at Rochester (Kent)
679 Aethelred of Mercia beat Ecgfrith of Nbria at Trent River- it was unusual for enemy nobles to be executed. Lesser enemy were sold abroad as slaves.
685 Against all advice, Ecgfrith of Northumbria fiercely attacked the Picts (under Brude McBeli) but it was a disaster. Lured into a mountain pass he and his army was ambushed & massacred by Picts at the Battle of Nechtansmere (Forfar?). Scotland/Pictland was made safe from the English, whilst Nbrian power declined and left it powerless by the time of the Vikings.  
704/5 Osred I Son of Aldfrith. He defeated the usurper, Eadwulf, at the Battle of bamburgh. Killed by Cenred.  
710 Ine of Wessex beat Geraint King of Cornwall at the River Tamar  
715 Ceolred beat Ine of Wessex at Adam’s Grove (Alton Priory, Wilts)  
722 River Hayle (Cornwall) - Ine of Wessex beat the S.Saxons “ Taunton (Somerset)- Aethelburg of Nbria beat Ealdburgh, Prince of Wessex. “ Garth Maelog (Wales) – Welsh Britons beat English (Mercians? Saxons?) “ Pencoed (Wales) - “” “ “ “  
725 (site?) Ine of Wessex beat the S.Saxons.  
733 Aethelbald of Mercia beat Aethelheard of Wessex at Somerton (Somerset).  
752 Beorgfeord (Burford, oxon) Aethelbald of Mercia was beaten in battle by Cuthred of Wessex, thus expanding north of the Thames. Gains here were wiped out by Offa’s victory at Benson in 777.  
756 Eadbert of Nbria & Angus of the Picts beat Britons of Strathclyde. At Alcluith (Dumbarton).  
757 Cyneheard Prince of Wessex beat Cynewulf of Wessex at Merantun.  
776 In late 8thC Kent had struggled to stay independent against Mercia, but lost here, Otford (Historical accounts conflict)  
777 Offa of Mercia defeats Cynewulf of Wessex at the important Battle of Benson. He gained lands back below the Thames.  
798 Ceolwulf of Mercia beat eadbehrt Praen of Kent at Romney Marsh.